Top 12 Indian Scientists

Jul/17/2023 / by Team Seema

Due to its famous scientists, India has witnessed major scientific developments throughout the centuries. Here are some of them.

Science is an integral part of everyday life. Everything we see is a dynamic science, once created by brilliant scientists, from the smallest light bulb to large machinery.

India has been technologically advanced from prehistoric times. From C. V. Raman through Radhakrishnan Venkatraman, the capabilities of Indian scientists and innovators in physics, medicine, mathematics, chemistry, and biology are pretty evident. Some have advanced research projects in numerous places in the world.

This piece will highlight the great achievements of some of the famous Indian scientists and innovators throughout history.

1. Dr C.V. Raman

Famous indian scientist - Dr. C.V. Raman
Image credits: MapsofIndia

Dr C.V. Raman (Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman) is indeed the greatest Indian Scientist who was born in Tiruchirapalli on November 7, 1888. In 1930, he was granted the Nobel Prize in Physics for his groundbreaking research on light scattering. Raman was the forerunner of Asian descent or any race other than White to win a Nobel Prize in Science.

He discovered the wavelength of deflected light changes when it travels through a transparent medium. This phenomenon, referred to as Raman scattering, is brought about by the Raman effect.

He was also passionate about music and was the first to study the acoustics of some instruments, including the harmonic nature of tabla and mridangam drum sounds.

In October 1970, he lost consciousness in his research laboratory. He was taken to a hospital, where doctors estimated that he had only four hours to live. After a few days, he chose to die surrounded by his flowers on the Center’s grounds instead of remaining in the hospital (the Bangalore Raman Research Institute). On November 21, 1970, he died from natural causes.

2. Homi J. Bhabha

Famous indian scientist - Homi J. Bhabha
Image credits: News18

Homi Jehangir Bhabha was born in Bombay on October 30, 1909. His contributions to Quantum Theory and cosmic radiation are noteworthy.

He was the first Indian to lead the Atomic Energy Commission as its chairman. After launching his nuclear physics career in the United Kingdom, Bhabha returned to India. He was instrumental in persuading the senior Congress Party members, particularly Jawaharlal Nehru, to launch the exquisite nuclear program.

Bhabha is largely viewed as India’s nuclear energy pioneer. However, he was fiercely opposed to India creating atomic bombs, even when the country could do so. Instead, he recommended using an atomic reactor to alleviate poverty and misery in India.

On January 24, 1966, he perished in the crash of Air India Flight 101 near Mont Blanc. In his tribute, the cross-section of electron-positron scattering in quantum physics was dubbed “Bhabha scattering.”

3. Visvesvaraya

Famous indian scientist - Virsvesvaraya
Image credits: etimg

September 15 1860, saw the birth of Sir Mokshagundam Visvesvaraya. From 1912 to 1918, Visvesvaraya reigned as the Diwan of Mysore. He was an architect, educator, and politician. He received the Bharat Ratna, the Republic of India’s highest civilian honor.

Sir M V advised India to catch up to industrialized countries because he felt that industry could contribute to India’s development.

He is credited with inventing ‘automatic sluice gates’ and ‘block irrigation system,’ regarded as engineering marvels today. On September 15 (his birthday), India celebrates Engineer’s Day. Due to the high cost of river beds, he devised an effective filtering method through ‘Collector Wells,’ which was only seen in a few places worldwide in 1895.

4. Radhakrishnan Venkatraman

Famous indian scientist - Radhakrishnan Venkatra
Image credits: theprint

18 May 1929 saw the birth of Venkatraman Radhakrishnan in the Chennai neighborhood of Tondaripet. Venkataraman was a distinguished Radio Astronomer who also designed and constructed ultralight sailboats and aircraft.

He partook in the invention and creation of a 10.4-meter millimeter-wave radio antenna, Deuterium abundance in the galaxy, Astrophysical Raman Masers, OH emission from clouds, and the low-frequency telescopes’ building Gauribidanur and Mauritius. His discoveries and theories answered numerous mysteries regarding pulsars, interstellar clouds, galaxy topologies, and other celestial bodies. He passed away in Bangalore at 81.

5. S. Chandrashekar

Famous indian scientist - S. Chandrashekar
Image credits: Wikimedia Commons

Astrophysicist Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar was an Indian American born on October 19, 1910, in a small place called Lahore in British India. William A. Fowler was bestowed the 1983 Nobel Prize in Physics for their contributions to the mathematical concept of black holes, and subsequently, the Chandrasekhar limit was established in his honor. The nephew of CV Raman, in 1953, Chandra became an American citizen.

His best-known research is on the energy radiation from stars, white dwarfs, stellar dynamics, stochastic process, radiative transfer, the quantum theory of the hydrogen anion, hydrodynamic and hydromagnetic stability, turbulence, equilibrium, and the predictability of ellipsoidal figures of equilibrium, general relativity, the mathematical theoretical concept of black holes, and the theory of colliding gravitational waves, which are the remnants of dying stars. He passed away on August 21, 1995, in Chicago at 82.

6. Satyendra Nath Bose

Satyendra Nath Bose
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Indian mathematician and scientist SN Bose was an expert in quantum mechanics. One of the famous Indian scientists, Bose was born in Calcutta on January 1, 1894. In recognition of his contributions to the field, Paul Dirac named the ‘bosons’ particle class after him.

Bose joined the University of Dhaka’s Physics Department as a Reader. He sent Albert Einstein a 1924 article titled “Planck’s Law and the Theory of Light Quanta” Einstein acknowledged his invention’s significance. It was translated into German and submitted to the renowned Zeitschrift für Physik of Bose. This designation allowed Bose to work for two years in European X-ray and crystallography centers. He met Louis de Broglie, Marie Curie, and Albert Einstein at that time. On this basis, the Bose-Einstein Statistics were established.

In 1937, Rabindranath Tagore devoted his only science or research book, Visva-Parichay, to Satyendra Nath Bose. In 1954, the Indian government presented Bose with The Padma Vibhushan, India’s second-highest civilian award.

7. Meghnad Saha

Famous indian scientist - Meghnad Saha
Image credits: dailyasianage

Meghnad Saha, one of the best Indian scientists, was born in Dhaka, Bangladesh, on October 6, 1893. His study on elements’ thermal ionization led to the Saha Equation’s development. This equation is among the most fundamental methods used in astrophysics to define star spectra’s chemical and physical characteristics.

In 1951, he was elected a member of the Indian Parliament. He co-authored A Treatise on Heat (4th edition, 1958) and A Treatise on Modern Physics (1934).

8. Birbal Sahni

Famous indian scientist - Birbal Sahni
Image credits: Amazon

Sahni, a famous Indian scientists who was born in West Punjab on November 14, 1891, was a paleobotanist of Indian descent who investigated the fossils in the Indian subcontinent. Additionally, he was a geologist with a passion for archaeology. His main contributions have been to historical and contemporary plant studies.

In 1936, he became the first Indian botanist to receive the highest British scientific distinction, election as a Royal Society of London Fellow (FRS).

He was a pioneer of The Paleobotanical Society that helped establish the Institute of Palaeobotany in 1946 September 10th, which initially operated out of the Botany Department of Lucknow University. On April 10 1949, Sahni died of a heart attack.

8. Srinivasa Ramanujan

Srinivasa Ramanujan
Image credits: IndiaTimes

Ramanujan was a mathematician from India. He was born in Tamil Nadu on December 22, 1887. Despite lacking formal mathematics instruction, he contributed greatly to mathematical analysis, infinite series, continuing fractions, and number theory. He independently formulated advanced theorems when he was 13.

In 1911, the Journal of the Indian Mathematical Society released Ramanujan’s first published work. Gradually, his brilliance was acknowledged, and in 1913 he began communicating with the British mathematician Godfrey H. Hardy, which resulted in a special fellowship from the University of Madras and a scholarship from Trinity College, Cambridge. In 1914, Ramanujan conquered his religious apprehensions and travelled to England, where Hardy taught and conducted research with him.

Due to the unavailability of vegetarian cuisine in England, he experienced numerous health problems. He returned to India, where he passed away at 32 years old. During his brief life, Ramanujan compiled roughly 3,900 results independently.

9. Jagdish Chandra Bose

Famous indian scientist - Jagdish Chandra Bose
Image credits: Wikimedia Commons

J.C. Bose was a physicist and plant physiologist of Indian descent. He was born in Bikrampur, West Bengal on November 30, 1858. He pioneered the science of microwave and radio optics used to evaluate plant development and built an experimental research base in the Indian subcontinent.

First, he invented wireless communication to identify radio waves using semiconductor junctions. In addition, he is frequently referred to as the “Father of Open Technology” because he openly shared his findings and labor for the development of others. His reluctance to patent his innovations is well-known.

His crescograph, which he used to assess plant response to a variety of stimuli and propose that plants may feel pain, understand affection, and so on, is another well-known creation.

10. A.P.J Abdul Kalam

A.P.J Abul Kalam
Image credits: britannica

Born on October 15, 1931, Avul Pakir Jainulabdeen Abdul Kalam is a top Indian scientist who served as an aeronautical engineer for the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) and the Defense Research and Development Organisation (DRDO).

 At the beginning of his career, Kalam designed a small aircraft for the Indian Army. He was also a member of the INCOSPAR group working under renowned space scientist Vikram Sarabhai. Kalam was reassigned to the ISRO in 1969. He served as the project director for India’s first native Satellite Launch Vehicle (SLV-III) that efficaciously deployed the Rohini in July 1980.

 He served as India’s eleventh president from 2002 to 2007. In his book India 2020, Kalam proposed ideas to build India into an industrialized country by 2020. He has earned numerous major honors, such as the Bharat Ratna in, India’s highest civilian honor. After leaving his position as a scientific adviser in 1999, Kalam established a target to meet 100,000 pupils within two years.

11. Har Gobind Khorana

Famous indian scientist - Har Gobind Khorana
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Khorana was a research scientist who shared the 1968 Nobel Prize for Medicine or Physiology with Marshall W. Nirenberg and Robert W. Holley for studies that helped to demonstrate how the order of nucleotides in nucleic acids, which hold the cell’s genetic code, control the cell’s synthesis of proteins. Khorana was born on January 9, 1922, in Raipur village in West Punjab.

Khorana was the first individual to create a living cell artificial gene in 1970. His work laid the groundwork for much of the biotechnology and gene therapy research that followed.

The Indian Government’s Department of Biotechnology, the University of Wisconsin-Madison, and the Indian-American (Indo-US) Science and Technology Forum launched the Khorana Program together in 2007. The goal of the program is to create an integrated community of scientists, social entrepreneurs and industrialists in the US and India. On November 9, 2011, at 89, Khorana died due to natural causes.

12. Vikram Sarabhai

Vikram Sarabhai
Image credits: tosshub

Vikram Sarabhai, considered the Father of India’s space program, was born in Ahmedabad, Gujarat, on August 12, 1919. Following the Russian Sputnik’s launch, he was influential in establishing the ISRO by convincing the Indian government of the significance of a space program for a developing nation.

The Padma Bhushan was granted to him in 1966. While his primary role in establishing ISRO is well known, most people don’t know that Padma was also the chief reason behind the founding of several other prestigious Indian institutes, including the Nehru Foundation for Development and the Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad (IIM-A).

FAQs about Famous Indian scientist

Who is the No 1 scientist in India?

C.V. Raman. Dr. C.V. Raman (Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman)

Who are the 3 most famous scientist in India?

Dr. C.V. Raman, Homi J. Bhabha and Visvesvaraya

Who is the top five Indian scientist?

Chandrasekhara V Raman
Dr Jagadish Chandra Bose
Dr Homi Jehangir Bhabha
Dr Vikram Ambalal Sarabhai
Dr A P J Abdul Kalam

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