Need To Know, Here’s the 101 on the Components of Fitness

Jun/09/2022 / by Nancy Amon
Components of Fitness
Image credits: Capstone Events via Unsplash

There are 5 components of fitness that is essential to know and work with when looking to do an effective training program. The components include muscular strength, muscular endurance, cardiorespiratory endur

ance, body composition and flexibility. You have to work with these components to allow your types of training not to affect them.

Muscular Strength

When it comes to muscular strength, this is measured by the amount of “force” muscles can exert or how much weight they can carry. For example, bicep curls, bench presses, push-ups or leg presses.

Muscular strength is one of the 5 components of physical fitness that could make day-to-day things like carrying groceries an easier a breeze.

Muscle Endurance

Another one of the 5 components of fitness is muscle endurance. Muscle endurance will help to determine how much muscles can take without becoming fatigued. Knowing the muscle endurance limit can also help train and avoid muscle fatigue.

When muscle endurance is enhanced, stamina is improved, and long-distance runners, cyclists, triathlon athletes are all good examples of this. Running, cycling, or swimming several kilometers at a time without becoming tired is muscle endurance at its best.

Cardiorespiratory Endurance

Components of fitness when it comes to cardiorespiratory endurance is tested through activities like running, walking, jogging, swimming and hiking to name a few.

Collectively the cardiorespiratory endurance test assesses the cardiac muscle while using other major health-related fitness components. Cardiorespiratory endurance can improve heart function, lungs and enhance cellular metabolism.

Body Composition

The five components of fitness also include body composition. Body composition is measured by the amount of body fat, lean muscle, organs and bone mass. Body composition is determined by factors like underwater weighing (Hydrostatic Weighing), Skinfold readings (covers the triceps, abdominal and super iliac) are all measured for body composition. The last one determining body composition is Bioelectrical Impendence which measures the fat and muscle mass.

Knowing your body composition will benefit you in a tailored approach to wellness and a balanced diet.


Flexibility forms another one of the health-related fitness components important to know for achieving better results in your overall fitness and training. Flexibility determines your limbs and joints ability to move through range and motion.

Consider doing some stretches for flexibility. Whether based on static stretching (holding an aided stretch for 30 seconds) or dynamic stretches that require several reps of a stretch (eg. Yoga’s sun salutations), stretches improve flexibility.

Testing flexibility includes bending from the waist forward as seen in a forward fold and touching your toes. More flexible persons can touch their toes, while less flexible may not be able to touch their toes. The same is done while sitting on the floor and attempting to touch the toes; reaching further means more flexibility in comparison to less reach.

The benefits of improving your flexibility will help with reach and range. Flexibility may also improve your balance.


What are the 5 main components of fitness?

The these include muscular strength, muscular endurance, flexibility, body composition and cardiorespiratory or cardiovascular endurance.

What are the two types of fitness?

There are 5 components of fitness in total but cardiovascular endurance and muscular strength is two.

Why are the five components of fitness important?

The 5 components are critical in achieving tailored fitness and health goals since it considers each individual’s physical health capabilities.

What are the principles of training?

The principles of training include:

– “Overload” – Following (FITT) frequency you train, Intensity, Time increase, Type of workout.
– Specify – Focuses on workouts that are suited to the individual and the sports they participate.
– Reversibility – Focuses on the fact that all your hard work training can be lost if you don’t maintain the momentum.
– Variance – Switch things up to keep training interesting.

Conclusion To Components Of Fitness

We can consider the components of fitness as a more tailored method of achieving weight loss and fitness goals. The 5 components of fitness are also ideal for custom results since it is based on the individual’s body.